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Farmer Boy, Chapter 20

Social Studies
Preparedness 
The Wilder family is preparing for winter. What needs to be done to get ready for winter? Ample amounts of heating fuel such as chopped firewood should be obtained. Enough food should be put up by canning or dehydration to keep you through the winter. Does your family stock up on supplies before winter? Does your family can or freeze food from the garden? Do you help with this?

Science
Apples 
Apples are a delicious, nutritious treat. They contain vitamins A and C, as well as potassium. They contain very little fat or sodium. There are many varieties of apples, differing in taste, firmness, and skin color. Apples were introduced in America, most likely from Holland, when settlers brought seeds with them. While sharing this book, try to get a few varieties of apples and have a taste test to see which you prefer. Describe the color, shape, texture and taste.

An apple comes from an apple tree, which starts out as a tiny seed. If you cut open an apple, you will see the many seeds inside. Each of these seeds is a little package of plant life. A seed coat protects the inside embryo, which is the baby plant. There is storage of food inside the seed around the embryo. Some seeds have a very hard coat, and it helps to soak the seed before planting. Not all seeds will grow though. They need air, plenty of water, and the right temperature and amount of light to begin to grow, or germinate.

Trees all have three main features in common, the crown, the trunk, and the roots. The crown is the top of the tree where the branches and leaves are found. The trunk is the stem of the tree, helping food to travel from the roots to the crown. It is covered with bark for protection. The roots are underground and absorb the water and nutrients that feed the tree. The roots are also what hold the tree in place. Some trees, such as the apple tree, bear fruit. From the branches will grow tiny buds that will produce the fruit. Can you think of any other fruits that grow on trees? Possibilities include peach, pear, cherry, plum, apricot, etc. The next time you go grocery shopping, walk through the produce aisle and identify all the fruits that grow on trees

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